The sad statistics shows that about half of the adult population suffers from back pain, but only one in five seeks help from a qualified physician. Neglect their health is fraught with involvement in the pathological process not only of many muscles, but some internal organs. The result of the defeat of the cervical spine becomes severe headaches, roaring in the ears, blurred vision, dizziness. If a thoracic, disrupted the heart and lungs. Disease of the lumbar affect the functioning of the digestive organs and the kidneys, in men, reduced libido.
With regular attempts to lift heavy objects, and also because of the jumps and drops that occur microtrauma of the intervertebral discs.Systematic negative impact contributes to loss of elasticity of the intervertebral discs — they are flattened, the distance between the vertebrae decreases. Accordingly, nerve roots, which branch off from the spinal cord, are clamped. The result is discomfort and pain. However, in the field of clamp-unequal-vascular bundle forms a swelling, which the patient experiences more pain.Destruction of the intervertebral disc leads to the fact that it stops buffering and injured even more.
The forecast of doctors is based on the age at which the patient first encountered the disease. The most dangerous situation is if the symptoms appeared in the 16-18 years — this means early onset of the disease. To 21-23 years with a high probability arises of protrusion to 32-34 years — intervertebral hernia. In the elderly hernia often deteriorates, develops autonomic dysfunction, neuralgia, diseases of the blood vessels. If back pain localized in the lumbar region and first touched the patient, when he reached the age of 55-65 years, doctors have a positive prognosis.
Examination of the spine is necessary if the pain does not go away during movement, worse at night, has high intensity and appeared for the first time. In addition, the urgent need to visit the clinic says incontinence of feces and urine, recent trauma, oncological anamnesis. If the pain lasts longer than two weeks, the disease with high probability will take a chronic form that is resistant to treatment.
The vast majority of cases, the culprit of the pain is low back pain. Spinal hernia manifests itself by pain when lifting heavy objects and simultaneously turning the torso in a tilted position. After this, the patient feels weakness and pain in his leg — right or left. The discomfort intensifies when moving, sneezing, coughing. Sciatica is easily recognized by a sharp pain in the lumbar region. If the patient is experiencing ongoing discomfort in the nape, and shoulders when you try to turn your head, it signals a chronic disease of the spine — cervical spondylosis, which induces the proliferation and subsequent deformation of the vertebrae. Among other things, suffering from back pain often complain of the inability to take a deep breath and a lack of mobility of the chest. In some cases, the cause is injury — sprain or injury. Proper treatment allows you to fully recover, the lack of treatment contributes to the serious complications that can lead to significant curvature of the spine.
Examination of the spine helps to identify why the patient has back pain.Just understanding that is the catalyst of ailments allows you to choose a suitable treatment plan. The back is the most extensive anatomical region, which includes the lower back and rump, neck, shoulders and spine. On the back there is a projecting dozen major anatomical structures. This is due to a variety of reasons that can cause malaise. Typically, these causes are disorders of the musculoskeletal system and various diseases:
- Infringement of spinal blood circulation;
- Hernia of the intervertebral disc;
However, it is important to understand that not always the sickness is due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Often pain is the result of lesions of the internal organs:
- Kidney disease;
- Diseases of the gallbladder and liver;
- Bowel problems;
- Disruptions of the heart;
- A lung disease.
In a situation when pain caused by diseases of internal organs, the pain does not disappear, that the patient was doing. He can lie down, sit, and walk, but the intensity of the sensation does not become below. At the same time, doctors do not exclude the reverse situation, when the degenerative disc disease of the thoracic makes itself felt pain in the region of the heart, mistaken for angina.
This is not the fact that the projection of the internal organs will coincide with the localization of back pain. Pain itself can also be of different nature. Dull and aching pain between the shoulder blades is clearly evidence of cardiac pathology. A sharp pain that affects the back and considerably increasing with the change poses, indicates sciatica, disc herniation or sciatica. The pain which gives in the thigh and groin, is a common symptom of renal colic.
Only a careful examination of the patient will help determine the exact cause of the disease. Diagnosis involves preparation of the clinical picture of the disease, a neurologist, and a number of special methods:
- Magnetic resonance imaging (gives a nice effect if necessary to visualize the spinal cord);
- X-rays of the spine in two or three projections;
- Ultrasound examination;
- Examination a chiropractor;
- Comprehensive analysis of blood, including biochemical;
- Computed tomography;
- Individual stars;
- Physical examination.
In the process of collecting of the anamnesis the doctor figures out the emotional state of the patient and possible stress, the localization of the pain in the back, and radiating. He also asks about the injury and illness records the relationship between pain and body movements.
Spinal diagnostics aimed at the study of neurological status, muscle tone and signs of tension. It is also important to determine the level of difficulty of movement due to pain while trying to lift my leg. Priority diagnostic sensitivity, as it may decrease or, on the contrary, will increase.
The purpose of medical examination — detection of any infections, tumors, diseases of somatic nature, which can be expressed through back trouble. Only clinical data give grounds to speak about compression and reflex complications of degenerative disc disease. However, you need to understand that not all back problems indicate osteochondrosis — a disease that affects mostly adults, and people older than fifty years. Pain syndrome may be a manifestation of a much more serious disease, so it is important to conduct the most thorough examination to find the true cause of illness. Only in this case, treatment will be really effective.
The treatment of back pain
The treatment of back pain is always assigned on the basis of the cause of ailments that can be different in each case. Basic methods include:
- Surgical intervention in case of emergency;
- Physiotherapy (physical therapy);
- Physiotherapy activities;
- Traction of the spine;
- A variety of massages.
Treatment that consists of medication, allows to relieve pain, inflammation, significantly improve metabolic processes in the body. Painkillers are divided into two categories — non-narcotic and narcotic.Conventional analgesics represent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To boost the immune system immunomodulators are used and a complex of vitamins B and C. For narcotic painkillers the doctors resorted to only in extreme cases when the pain is almost impossible to make and other drugs have no noticeable effect. Drugs are given by injection in situations when back pain is not due to the easy stretching of the muscles, as a result of malignant tumors or threat of injury.
At the present time gaining popularity of the modern highly effective and safe method of treating spine problems, joints, ligaments, shock wave therapy, which is a hardware method of therapeutic effects on tissues with the sighting of acoustic waves of a certain frequency.
It is impossible to overestimate the benefits of physiotherapy, which greatly strengthen the spinal muscles stabilize the spine and have a positive effect on metabolic processes. The most effective in this sense is the electrophoresis with calcium, as well as paraffin, electrical stimulation. If you allow the financial capabilities, the patient is obliged to visit the mud spas is their positive effect on the road to recovery scientifically proven.
Physical therapy and massage is also aimed at strengthening the muscles and stabilizing the spine. They greatly reduce the intensity of pain, and sometimes can completely get rid of unpleasant sensations. However, therapeutic physical training and massage is recommended only after will be charged the aggravation of pain, or the well-being of the patient and the overall clinical picture of the disease much worse. Therapeutic exercises should be conducted under the supervision of a physician, any serious load is excluded. During the first classes were most often not made no movement, all you need is to lie on a flat soft surface. In subsequent meetings, the doctor makes the patient take a small amplitude and the strength of the movement — first to raise the feet from the supine position, after using special shells. The most basic exercise to strengthen the spine, which is associated with the stretching — cat- deflection in position when the patient is on all fours. If pain worsens during physical therapy, you should immediately stop training.
Surgery to remove the herniated disk is shown only in specific cases where the spinal cord and cauda equina roots quite tightly. Without it not to manage, if the patient is diagnosed with radiculopathy, which is accompanied by a clear paresis. The lack of any effect after conservative treatment for three to four months and a large herniated disc do not leave other choice but to turn to the surgeon.