Complaints of back pain and lower back pain are very frequent in emergency and outpatient medical practice. The seriousness of this condition is caused by the fact that acute pain severely limits physical activity and disabled people.
The most common complaints are:
- Back pain above waist.
- Pain in the lower back.
- Back pain below the waist.
Back pain above waist
This pain can occur intermittently, or be chronic. Sometimes the pain goes away, but can return again after the lifting of gravity; sharp torso; long periods of sitting at an uncomfortable height table.
The main reason can be:
- Incorrect posture.
- Correctly fitted with a working place.
- Low back pain.
- Myofascial syndrome.
Lower back pain
The most common condition. Usually found in middle-aged and older, but young people are not immune from manifestations of such symptoms. For this condition there is even a separate title in medicine – "lumbago".
Pain in lumbago occurs against a background of strong physical exertion or sudden awkward movements, and is so intense that the person is "locked" in one position. When you try to change the body posture to a more comfortable - the pain is worse. Affect the occurrence of pain, in addition to physical activity, maybe hypothermia.
Determining the causes of lumbago are:
- Lumbar hernia.
- The displacement of the vertebrae.
- A prolapsed disk between the vertebrae (in very intense physical activity).
The pain of lumbago is very sharp, sharp, so the pain is also called "lumbago". Sometimes cross even stopping to take a deep breath and exhale the air. In the supine, relaxed position gradually the pain goes away. Patients feel it as if in the loins "something fell into place".
Back pain below the waist
The pain below the waist is often spread in the legs. Can be acute or chronic. Occurs on the background of physical activity, after exposure.
The reason may be:
- Bechterew's Disease.
- Herniation between the vertebral discs.
More common is the complaint of back pain and lower back directly on the right side. It's a possible sign of renal colic.
Symptoms: pain radiates into the abdomen, genitals. Sometimes patients feel an acute urge to urinate.
The character of the pain is extremely sharp and intense. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate medical intervention. In this case, first of all, you need to call an Ambulance.
There are several types of back pain and lower back:
- Pain of musculoskeletal origin.
- The pain arising due to injuries.
- The pain that spreads into the lumbar.
- Pain that starts in people younger than 50 years.
- Pain that starts in people over 50 years.
- The pain that comes with pregnancy (not a pathology that occurs due to increased functional load on the body).
Back pain and lower back pain of musculoskeletal origin
All the small ligaments, joint capsule, connective tissue sheath, the bones - all of that is in all of its functions allows us to move, is accompanied by spatial and sensitivity to pain. Factors trauma, excessive stress, displacement of articular processes lead to inflammatory reactions that cause pain.
Back pain and lower back due to injuries
Sudden strain on the muscles can lead to partial damage of the muscles or ligaments. To a small injury, maybe even a healthy person with a specific injury. Pain is usually accompanied by muscle spasm, which passes through several days in the case of a light or few weeks in more severe injury. The pain gradually becomes dull, not sharp.
Apply the pain in the lower back and the back
This pain is felt when there is a stenosis of the nerve roots due to narrowing of the spinal canal and the holes between the vertebrae or a herniated vertebral disc in between.
Cause of stenosis is considered a degenerative change of the nerve roots. In some cases, carried out an operation – laminektomie. This operation allows to provide access to the spinal cord through dissection of the vertebral arch. Thus, removed or even completely eliminated the pressure on the nerve roots.
Pressure on the roots is due to age-related changes, so that young people are almost not affected by this disease.
Pain stenosis occurs in the back, then extends the leg. Man walks with a limp. Accompanied by a feeling of numbness, dull aching pain.
Hernia between vertebrae
This disease is formed gradually. According to statistics, acute attacks of pain in the hernia between vertebrae occur in people thirty years of age and older. The symptoms manifested by each person differently, but there are common features: for example, one limping, avoiding heavy load on the patient side, the patient keeps the limb in a bent condition. If during the examination the doctor asks you to bend, straighten, rotate the affected leg, he will note that the patient has reduced range of motion.
Back pain and lower back, occurs in people younger than 50 years
In a group of diseases in which pain in the back and loins occurs in young and middle age are:
- Osteomyelitis of the spine.
Osteomyelitis – inflammation of bone marrow, which affects the outer layer of the bone and the substance of the bone. Osteomyelitis of the spine is often found among people afflicted with urogenital infection; diabetes; skin infections; dermatological infections. The main symptom – pain that increases when walking. Accompanied by a state of malaise and fever. The causative agent of osteomyelitis is Staphylococcus aureus.
Osteomyelitis can get sick and children. Bacteria that form the pus spread to the bone and outer layer of bone and degrade bone. In infants bone lesions leads to the formation of arthritis (disorders of joints).
Way of penetration of causative agent of osteomyelitis:
- Via the bloodstream.
- Through the inflammation.
- Through a penetrating injury (e.g. after a fracture or after surgery on the bone tissue due to traumatic equipment operation and violation of the principles of asepsis).
Spondylolisthesis - displacement of the fifth lumbar vertebra toward the sacrum. Symptoms of this disease varies according to severity of degenerative changes.
Main complaints: back pain, hip pain, tibia; great weakness. Because of muscle spasm, reduced range of motion. Any concussion of the spine increases the pain, so gait in patients become careful and soft. Depending on the degree of displacement of the vertebra is divided into four main stages characterized depending on the offset percentage: up to 25%, from 25 to 50%, from 50% to 75%, from 75% and above.
Fibromyalgia is an inflammatory process in the fibrous connective tissue.
Symptoms: pain along the entire body, the lesser the mobility of the spine, weakness in the morning after sleep. The intensity of pain: moderate to very strong. According to statistics, the fibromyalgia is mostly found among middle-aged women. Patients often complain of sleep problems, headaches that occur after overstrain, after an emotional stress.
acroiliitis proceeds usually in conjunction with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic inflammation of the intestinal system. This disease is not as common; they are sick mostly young people.
- Back pain and lower back pain.
- Severe weight loss.
- Digestive disorders, particularly diarrhea.
Back pain and lower back, occurs in people older than 50 years
In a group of diseases which are formed at an older age after 50 years include:
- Tumors of the spine.
Osteoporosis is a decrease in the density of bone tissue, due to which it becomes fragile and brittle. This is a very common cause of pain in the lower back caused by metabolic disorders, particularly a lack of calcium. The disease is typical of advanced age; hurt both women and men.
Spondylosis is formed gradually due to wear and cracking between the vertebrae. Occurs stretching of the joints, degenerative changes occur in the outer parts of the disk. Causes can be excessive long load on the musculoskeletal system and trauma of the spine. Symptoms of spondylosis is lower back pain, increase the inflammatory process. At first, the pain is not too strong and occurs during prolonged physical activity; subsequently, the pain becomes intense and occurs even when you cough. Exacerbation of pain accompanied by spasms of the muscles around the vertebral.
Spinal tumors – not very common disease. Young people formed benign tumors affecting the posterior apophysis of the vertebra. The older people formed malignant tumors involving anterior apophysis of the vertebra.
The defeat of spine metastases is a frequent process. Importantly, in 25% of cases the main symptom of the lesion is back pain.
This fact once again reminds that back pain and lower back, as a rule, is a sure sign of the disease.
Back pain and lower back during pregnancy
During pregnancy many women feel the constant nagging pain in the back and waist. The mechanism of this pain is the increase the secretion of the hormone relaxin, whose function is to soften the ligaments of the lumbosacral (to prepare the birth canal for the passage of the fetus). Since relaxin is not selective exposure, it affects all ligaments, which causes pain in the lumbar spine, which is increased in connection with increasing weight of the pregnant woman.
The increasing weight shifts the center of the torso forward, the lumbar and pelvic muscles strain to balance the body. It is because of excessive stress in these muscles increases the pain.
Simple tips for pregnant ladies, which will help to reduce the intensity of back pain and lower back:
- Move straight smoothly.
- Try to avoid heavy lifting, if this is impossible – to raise smoothly, not sharply. Raise the weight without bending, distributing the weight of gravity evenly distributed to both hands.
- If you need to bend down to floor then slowly sink to your knees without bending your back.
- To get out of bed, you first need to turn to the side, then kneel, climb, holding on to something stable – for example, the back of the couch.
- Do not remove items placed high you may lose your balance.
- Do not wear high heels.
The relaxin softening ligaments is common, but not the only cause of back pain and lower back pain in pregnant women. Sometimes the herniated disc or sciatica.
Sharp lower back pain 38 weeks of pregnancy can mean the beginning of labor. Therefore, in such situation it is urgent to call a doctor.
Diagnosis of back pain and lower back
Since there are so many causes of back pain and lower back pain, it is often the situation arises when it is difficult to distinguish one disease from another with similar symptoms.
Diagnosis is carried out with following methods:
- Computer or magnetic-resonant tomography.
Computer tomography allows to identify the structural changes of the vertebrae; changes associated with a history of infections; fractures; osteoporosis; tumors; arthritis.
The computer test assesses three main parameters: the condition of the bone, soft tissue and blood vessels.
Myelography is a radiopaque examination pathways of the spinal cord. Indicated in all pathological conditions in which reduced clearance of the channel of the spine for tumors, stenosis, hernias. A contrast agent (often xenon gas) is introduced into the spinal cord, then conduct x-ray examination.
When the initial data of x-ray examination are not informative in General, it shows a radionuclide scan (scintigraphy). This method allows to diagnose neoplastic growths, arthritis and other diseases. This method is quite costly and does not always apply.
The treatment of back pain and lower back
The treatment of back pain and lower back pain with unclear etiology is symptomatic, and involves bed rest, use of sedatives, analgesics, and drugs that reduce inflammation. Also effective is the prescription of muscle relaxants, reduce muscle tension and thus relieves pain.
Lack of physical activity during the working day is a distinctive feature of work in the office. Position without movement, long stay in an awkward position and provoke unnecessary stress on the joints and cause pain, discomfort and gradual destruction of cartilage. Therefore, office workers are advised to regularly do exercises, and they need funds that protect and restore cartilage, chondroprotector.
If, after completing diagnostic procedures posed a definite diagnosis, the doctor prescribes the appropriate conservative treatment, and in some cases decides on the appropriateness of surgical treatment. Not always effective relief of symptoms because the disease itself is not going away. Hence, the treatment should be such which will aim to remove the root causes of pain.
Patients are osteopathy, which includes the physiological mechanisms of self-regulation processes in the body.
Most importantly – do not self-medicate but to consult a qualified specialist who will diagnose and develop the correct tactics of treatment.